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    Jennifer Festus
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      Significantly, a lot of events are recorded in African history, of which some would be highlighted below;

       

      In 5-2.5 million BCE, skeletal remains that were uncovered suggested the Rift Valley in East Africa present-day Ethiopia served as home to the earliest human ancestors.

       

       

      Around 4-2.7 million BCE, the Hominid species Australopithecus afarensis lived in the Hadar region of Ethiopia, including “Lucy,” the famous skeletal remains found in 1974.

       

       

      600,000 to 200,000 BCE, marked the period of migration across the African continent and out of Africa to Asia and Europe. Fire was first used during this period.

       

       

      6000-4000 BCE marked the spread of agriculture across Africa. River societies emerge along the Nile, Niger, and Congo Rivers.

       

       

      5000 BCE (ca.) Egyptian agriculturalists develop irrigation and animal husbandry to transform the lower Nile Valley. The rise in the food supply generated a rapidly increasing population.

       

      Agricultural surpluses and growing wealth allowed specialization including glass making, pottery, metallurgy, weaving, woodworking, leather making, and masonry.

       

       

      4500 BCE, Egyptians begin using burial texts to accompany their dead into the afterlife. This is the first evidence of written texts anywhere in the world.

       

       

      4000 BCE, Egypt emerges as a centralized state and flourishing civilization.

       

       

      2700-1087 BCE, marked the period of the Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, and New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt and Northeastern Africa.

       

       

      2500 BCE, other civilizations emerged in Mesopotamia, northern China, and Northeastern India.

       

       

      2500 BCE, the Nubian state with its capital at Kerma emerged as a rival to Egypt.

       

       

      1500 BCE, the Egyptian New Kingdom united the Nile Valley including Nubia.

       

       

      1069 BCE, Nubia briefly regained its independence from Egypt.

       

       

      1000-800 BCE, Bantu migrated out of present-day eastern Nigeria and spread across Sub-Saharan Africa.

       

       

      750-664 BCE, Nubian Pharaohs rule the entire Nile Valley during the 25th Dynasty.

       

       

      500, Bantu speakers arrive in what is now known as South Africa with iron and domesticated cattle.

       

       

      500 marked the beginning of the trans-Saharan salt and gold trade in West Africa.

       

       

      500 BCE, Axum emerged in North-eastern Africa. Axum eventually became the nation of Ethiopia.

       

       

      500 BCE, Ancient Nok culture emerges in what is now Nigeria.

       

       

      332 BCE, Egypt was conquered by Alexander the Great. Ptolemy became the first ruler of a dynasty that will control Egypt until 283 BCE.

       

       

      300 BCE, the rulers of Nubia establish a new kingdom at Meroe. The Kingdom, which was later called Kush, lasted there for more than nine centuries.

       

       

      247-183 BCE, Hannibal rules Carthage. During his reign, Roman Italy was invaded.

       

       

      200 BCE, Alexandria on the Mediterranean Sea is the scientific capital of the Hellenistic world, famous for its museum, university, and library.

       

       

      200 BCE, the State of Ghana began to evolve in the West African Sudan. It was located in what is now Burkina Faso.

       

       

      146 BCE, Rome conquered Carthage and established its first significant presence on the African continent.

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